4.1 Selection of species of frogs Spawning hatching season of stone frogs is from April to September, and from May to June is the peak period of spawning. To increase the spawning rate and hatching rate, we must begin with the recovery of hibernating species of frogs and do a good job in the selection and breeding of breeding frogs, spawning, hatching and other preparations.
The selection of breeding frogs is the basis for successful artificial breeding. After hibernation, the frogs are fully inspected and categorized before spring propagation. Individuals with large individuals, robust body, smooth skin, well-developed, no disability, no damage, and sexual maturity are selected. The frog is reserved for species use. General 2 instar frog, female frog weighs more than 200 grams, male frog 250 grams or more can be used for species. The frog eggs were less in the first production, and the frogs produced 1 or 2 times had higher egg production and better quality. Individual large old frogs produce a lot of eggs, but their quality is not good, and the fertilization rate is not high. Generally, they should not be selected as breeding frogs. Male frogs are required to be robust, jumpy, and light and strong in legs; female frogs require thick legs, abdomen, and bright skin. 2 to 3 years old species of frog fertility.
4.2 Breeding temperatures of frog species, water temperature, water quality, light, food, and environmental conditions have a great influence on the health and reproduction of frogs. The living environment is good or bad, and directly affects the breeding rate, spawning rate, fertility rate, hatching rate, and survival rate of earthworms. . According to habits of stone frogs, species of frogs should be built in a quiet, low light location, pool height 0.8m, area 4 ~ 10m2. The bottom of the pool is covered with cobblestones and stone caves, which are conducive to breeding spawning eggs. The water and land area within the pond is 3:1, and the required water capacity is relatively stable. The water depth is about 15cm. The water quality is fresh, and the pH value is 6-8. There are no harmful parasites. In the season of eating, it is usually changed once a day. In the off-season, the water is changed every 2 to 3 days. 15 frogs were placed per square meter, and group rearing was conducted at a ratio of 1:1 for males and females. The selected frogs must be ready for group rearing before hibernation or before spring propagation.
The frogs that are prepared to be kept for breeding should be raised before hibernation to make them strong and strong and ensure safe wintering. In addition to requiring proper environmental conditions, frog breeding must also ensure adequate feed supply. The species of frogs are mainly animal feeds such as cockroaches, mealworms, moths, fly maggots and other insects. The maximum food intake during May-September period is reduced during estrus and increased during late spawning. It is advisable for the feed supply to have a slight surplus after eating, and the daily feed amount should be balanced. Do not change too often, depending on the circumstances, increase or decrease as appropriate, feeding time is generally in the evening (as soon as the sun is going down), once a day, fixed feeding.
4.3 Breeding and spawning After the hibernation of the stone frogs, the follicles develop rapidly. Usually, breeding begins at April, when the water temperature is 15Â°C and the temperature is above 20Â°C. The end of September is over. The ratio of breeding males to females is 1:1, and the stocking density of breeding frog ponds is 15 animals per square meter. The male frog cries â€œå’•å’•å’•â€ and the female frog uses the sound of â€œå’”å’”å’”â€ and â€œå’”å’”â€. The frogs generally hold their right after 21 o'clock at night. Hug stimuli are necessary for mating male frogs. The frogs usually ovulate at 4 to 7 o'clock in the morning, and some extend to 9 to 10 o'clock. The egg mass usually adheres to the wall of stone pools. Generally, about 600 eggs are laid each time, and the number of eggs is as high as 1000 to 2000 eggs. Spherical, outer glial membranes stick together eggs. The eggs produced should not be agitated as much as possible within 1 hour to avoid fragmentation of the eggs and reduce the hatching rate. When frogs are spawning and spawning, it is necessary to create a dim, quiet, fresh water and stable water level environment.
4.4 Artificial hatching stone frog eggs are spherical, similar to fish eyes, egg diameter of about 4mm, the outer layer of glial membrane of the egg was round, the egg output fell into the water, the glial membrane water swelling, egg glial membrane connected to each other into an egg mass, Grape-like, egg masses are adsorbed on stones, plants, or pool walls in the spawning pool. After three days of unfertilized eggs, the animals became extremely yellow and the plants were extremely opaque. During embryonic development, embryos are very sensitive to changes in the outside world. This period requires stable environmental and ecological conditions and avoids direct sunlight. Manual harvesting of fertilized eggs must be done carefully and gently, otherwise it will reduce the hatching rate. During the incubation process, the water should be clean, the water temperature should be 18-28Â°C, the pH value should be neutral, and the same clutch should not be hatched separately.
According to the experimental observation of the stone frogs, the eggs of the stone frogs were extremely black and the plants were extremely white. The frog eggs hatched at a water temperature of 18Â°C. On the fifth day, the dark spots of the fertilized eggs became longer and linear. The embryos on the seventh day were strip-shaped. One end was large and one end was small. The eighth day of the embryo showed clearly the head and tail, and the tail. Forming, and shaking, on the tenth day there was a little hatching of the membrane, on the thirteenth day there was 75% hatching, on the fifteenth day all hatched, the hatching rate was 85.3%. If the incubation temperature is 25-29Â°C, the incubation time is only 7-8 days and the hatching rate is 85%. The hatching rate of the frog eggs can reach over 90% if the temperature is suitable and the water quality is not polluted during the entire incubation process. When the water temperature is appropriate, the hatching rate is mainly determined by the quality of water and dissolved oxygen in the water. The better the water quality is, the higher the dissolved oxygen is, and the hatching rate is up to 100%. During the breeding season, the pool is patted once every morning. After the frogs ovulate for 1 hour, the eggs should be removed and the eggs should be kept intact. The removed eggs are gently placed in a pre-prepared hatchery pool for hatching. The animal is extremely upward (ie, has a black end). The plants are face down. In addition to the prevention of natural enemies during hatching, the ecology of hatching should be strictly controlled. Conditions, including water temperature, water depth, water quality and other requirements, water temperature below 30 Â°C, water depth 15cm, pH value of 6 to 8, the water is fresh and pollution-free, and contains sufficient dissolved oxygen, light can be natural, but avoid direct sunlight. The water temperature of 25 to 26Â°C is very favorable for hatching. The time is short, the hatching rate is high, the temperature rises further, and the hatching rate decreases. The basic hatching above 30Â°C is not possible.
5 The feeding and management of stone frogs and frogs The frogs of the stone frogs have poor adaptability and resistance to the external environment and predators. If they do not pay much attention, they will cause great losses. The young frogs of the stone frogs are the metamorphosis after ten days of paralysis. The metamorphosis of the young frog, weak, is very sensitive to the environment, especially in the first 10 days, its lungs and digestive tract are very fragile. Therefore, the level of feeding and management is the key to affect the growth rate of its survival rate.
5.1 Feeding Management Techniques of Storks In the condition of artificial rearing, after the mother frogs lay eggs, their eggs can be hatched for 8 to 15 days after hatching. After hatching, the young larvae have a brownish-yellow body, a body length of 0.6-0.8 cm, and a tail length of about 1 cm. They are drum-shaped, and are usually adsorbed on the bottom of the pool and on the egg membrane. They rarely move and they do not feed. After three days, the amount of activity increased and began to feed. According to experimental observation, the growth and development process of loquat can be divided into four stages: initial stage, early stage, middle stage, and late stage. The growth characteristics and requirements for feeding and management in different periods are different.
5.1.1 The initial stage of growth (1 to 10 days). The quail hatched within three days without feeding, relying on nutrition from the yolk to maintain life, premature feeding will lead to its death. After three days, the activity of earthworms increased significantly. When the two lids were fully formed, they began to feed. Feeding one egg yolk per 10,000 tail hooves was regularly fed and some natural plankton, such as leeches and algae, were properly added. The newly hatched quail is physically weak and sensitive to the outside environment, especially water temperature, water quality, and light. When the water temperature is lower than 20Â°C or higher than 30Â°C, the dissolved oxygen in the water is insufficient. When the pH value is higher than 8 or lower than 6, the growth of the alfalfa will be affected and even cause death. Therefore, in terms of water quality management, it is required that water should be kept in a constant flow, clean and free of pollution, and the water temperature should be maintained at 20 to 29Â°C with a pH of 6 to 8. With the changes in the outside temperature, adjust the depth of water in time, generally 10 ~ 15cm is better, change the water every day. The light can be diffused with indoor natural light or under an outdoor gazebo. Avoid direct sunlight. After 10 days of growth and development, the pods can grow to 1 to 1.5 cm in length.
5.1.2 Pre-growth (10 to 20 days). After 10 days, the food intake increased, the growth and development accelerated, and wolfberry began to look for new foods, but its digestive function was still not strong. At this time, the quality of feeding directly affected the survival rate of quail. Therefore, in the feeding must be added to the bait to meet the needs of its growth and development, mainly nutrient-rich paste juice feed, such as egg yolk, corn flour, No. 4 powder, supplemented by delicate algae and other plants. Feeding time can be day or night, once a day, but it should be timed. Feeding amount is generally one egg yolk per day for every 1,500 oysters. After careful breeding, when it reaches the age of 20 days, the body length can reach 2cm, the body color becomes light brown, the back has a milky white pattern, and the body has a distinct black â€œVâ€ pattern at the junction with the tail. The management of 10 to 20-day-old clams is required to keep the pool water clean to prevent poisoning. It is necessary to change the pool water once a day. The water depth should be 10 to 20 cm, and the pool water should be protected from direct sunlight.
5.1.3 Mid-growth (20-50 days). At this time, the digestive function of cockroaches has been continuously enhanced. In order to promote the development of cockroach and digestive tract as soon as possible, and to adapt to the biological characteristics of the â€œherbivoryâ€ of a certain period of amphibians, after 20 days of age, it is necessary to cast in addition to feeding the paste. Feed plant feeds and algae plants such as duckweed. During this period of time, the feeding and management of earthworms was relatively simple. The main use of plant foods was to supplement animal feed. Gradually, animal feed was the mainstay. The increase of animal feeds would accelerate the transformation of earthworms, and plant foods could Promote their individual growth, it should be mixed feeding. Management should pay attention to ensure that the pool water is clean, free from pollution, daily removal of food residue in the pool. The rearing density is preferably 300 to 500 per square meter, so that the earthworm can grow normally. By the age of 50 days, some earthworms grow back feet. In this period, the survival rate can reach 95%. If the water temperature is low, the period will be longer.
5.1.4 Late growth (50-78 days), this period is the critical period for the transformation of earthworms into baby frogs. During this period, the hind limbs and forelimbs are to be grown and transformed into aquatic amphibious amphibians. Around 50 days old, the body is more than 4cm long and grows into the hind limbs. The forelimb is started about 2 weeks (65 days old) after the hindlimb grows. After the forelimb grows, the tail begins to be absorbed. At this time, the stone frogs stop feeding. Enter the metamorphosis. During this period, in addition to feeding enough feed, a small amount of animal live bait feed was added. In management, it is: Gradually feeding, fresh water (only 3cm water level in shallow water), half water and land, convenient landing, dim light, quiet environment. It takes about 10 days for the metamorphosis to metamorphosis to complete, and the metamorphosis rate for metamorphosis to reach 95%.
Cockroaches should be reared at different ages, and they should be graded according to individual size at the same age, once a month, in order to facilitate uniform feed management. Grasping the breeding density reasonably, grouping and combining in the grading process, and keeping in separate pools with the appropriate density of the same level individual. Feeds should be varied in variety, high quality, and correctly grasp the reasonable amount of feed, not too little too much, once a day feeding at a fixed point, each feeding a balanced amount, with the increase in age and gradually increase. Before and after the peak season for eating, or before and after metamorphosis, stricter management of feeding should be done to prevent the occurrence of various diseases or to cause unnecessary losses due to the discomfort of environmental conditions. Early hatching quail should be reared to promote its metamorphosis; late hatching pupa should reasonably control the amount of feeding, not to perish perennial, so that the pupa overwintering to reduce mortality.
After growth and development, the time of metamorphosis is greatly affected by the breeding and hatching season and the outside temperature. Generally, the eggs that hatch from April to July can be metamorphosis in 7 to 9 months, and the eggs that hatch after 8 to 9 months. After wintering, the young frogs will become metamorphosis after April of the following year.
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