Clarias leather, also known as Egyptian beard owl, Egyptian pond mullet, leather genus urn, Egyptian pond horn fish, and grass beard owl (probably caused by clerical errors), are categorized under the order of the scorpion, beard, and carp. Bearded genus. Often inhabiting the waters along the bottom of the pool, hi group homes, good mud and burrowing, is an omnivorous fish dominated by animal feed. Originated in the Nile Valley of Africa, China was introduced in 1981. It has the advantages of large individuals, rapid growth, high yield, wide appetite, strong disease resistance, low oxygen tolerance, strong adaptability, high nutritional value, delicious taste, and less bone defects. Therefore, leather beard is a very good The high-quality products with good breeding prospects have good aquaculture production and economic benefits. The current aquaculture range has been extended to most parts of China.
Morphological characteristics Leather beard carcass long shape, body surface without scales, cylindrical, flat head, mouth near the lower position, tentacles (4 pairs) is more developed, the eye is smaller. The head back has a number of radially arranged bone granules. The edges of each fin are light red, with black spots on the side of the fins and greyish white cloud patches. The back is grayish black, white on the abdomen, and wide mouth cracks.
Living habits Leather beards belong to benthic fish and have a mild temperament. However, the intra-specific competition during the seedling period is fierce. Mutual killing and strong meat feeding are common. After eating during the day, it likes to gather at the bottom of the pool, in the caves and in the dark, and to move around and feed at night. Due to long-term inhabitation in the bottom burrowing environment, resulting in visual degradation, the external food, stimulation, predators and other feelings, mainly rely on four pairs of well-developed beard around the mouth and developed sideline system and sniffing sac. At the same time, the leather beard carp has a shape of a dendritic indwelling auxiliary respiratory organ, which can directly use the oxygen in the air, so it is very resistant to hypoxia. As long as the skin stays moist, it will not die if you leave the water for a long time.
The leather beard owl's migratory ability is strong. It uses strong hard buckling to support the body's crawling on the land, crossing many obstacles, and migrating from one body of water to another to find a new living environment. Leather beard is a tropical, subtropical fish, poor resistance to low temperature. When the water temperature drops to 8 to 10Â°C, it will cause frostbite and infect the hydromycosis; when it falls below 7Â°C, it will begin to die. Therefore, during the artificial wintering period, the water temperature must be maintained at least 13 Â°C.
Leather beard fleas are found in bodies of water with a dissolved oxygen content of 0.8 mg/l (usually fish requires 1.7 mg/l of dissolved oxygen in water) and an acidic environment with a pH of 4.8 (generally fish require water with a pH above 5.6). They can still live normally and even survive in a stinking water body. However, if they live in harsh environments for a long time, their growth will be inhibited or a variety of fish diseases will occur.
The dietary leather beard owl is an omnivorous fish mainly based on animal diets. Its food intake is large, and the amount of daily eclipse is 5 to 8% of its own body weight, and the maximum amount is 15% or more. If overfeeding, it will result in ingestion. More bloated. The leather beard cubs have strong ability to fight hunger. When the artificial species is overwintering, the fingerlings or broodstock do not feed or die for 4 to 5 months. When the water temperature rises above 15Â°C, they start to feed normally, and the temperature is between 20 and 35Â°C. Strong food intake. Generally from May to September is the peak of feeding, the fastest growing time.
In natural waters, fish fry mainly eat rotifers, leeches, cockroaches, cladocera, and copepods. After 4 to 7 days of feeding, it is completely dependent on prey for nutrition. The palatable objects gradually increase from small to large, mainly larvae that prey on larger species, and when they are insufficient, organic detritus, aquatic insects, and worms, etc., are also consumed. During the adult stage, it mainly eats worms in the water, aquatic insects, benthic animals, small fish, shrimps and animal carcasses, organic debris, and tender stems and leaves of plants. Under artificial rearing conditions, animal feed such as blood, viscera, fish meal, cocoon, snail meat, cockroach, fly maggots of poultry can be fed; rice bran, peanut cake, wheat bran, bean cake and corn flour can also be fed. Plant feed.
Growing leather is moustache gluttony, often lurking in the darkness of the pool after satiation. Therefore, it has fast growth, high yield, and short production cycle. In southern China, it can raise 2 to 3 seasons a year. It is cultured under pond conditions. After 4 to 5 months of feeding, the fry can grow up to 0.5 kg. The largest individual can reach 2 kg or more and the yield per mu can reach 5000 kg. For the overwintering fish species in the previous year, it can generally grow to 1 kilogram, and the largest individual can reach more than 4 kilograms.
Breeding habits The gonad development of the beard owl is a non-synchronous multiple spawning type with strong reproductive ability. The sexual maturity age is 10-12 months. It usually reproduces 3 to 4 times a year. The breeding season of the leather beard owl is generally from April to September, and the spawning period of a few broodstocks can be extended until the end of October. The breeding season is from May to July. After August, the ability to reproduce due to degeneration of the ovaries or in the event of high temperatures is reduced. From November to December, the reproductive glands are in a degenerative phase. The suitable water temperature for breeding is 22-32Â°C, preferably 27-32Â°C. Below 20Â°C or above 32Â°C, spawning activity is inhibited and no eggs are laid at 18Â°C. When the water temperature rises above 20Â°C, the mature male and female fish are estrus, the males are discharged, and the females produce greenish viscous eggs on the attachments. Their spawning habits are similar to those of the eel and squid. The amount of eggs laid depends on the size of the individual. The number of oviposites of 0.25 to 0.5 kilograms of leather beard carp is 1.5 to 65,000, and that of females weighing 0.75 to 1.25 kilograms is 11.3 to 178,000. Incubation water temperature 22 ~ 30 Â°C, 22 ~ 25 hours to emerge.
Leather moustaches are gluttonous, have large food intake, grow fast, and have intense intra-species competition. The seed size below 10cm in general specification, especially if the seed size is between 2 and 8cm, if there is insufficient supply of bait and improper management, a strong weak meat will occur and the big fish will eat small fish. In this case, the seedlings coming out of the pond have irregular specifications, many diseases, and the survival rate is often less than 10%. Therefore, it is particularly important for the seedlings to grow in size.
Prepare seedlings before stocking
Seed cultivation pond: concrete pool, rectangular. The small pool area is 20 square meters, and the pool depth is 1 meter; the large pool area is 1 acre and the pool depth is 15 meters.
Water quality cultivation cues: The flesh fish fry grow into a seedling with a total length of 2cm. Before fry stocking, clean the walls and bottom of the cement pool, inject about 30cm of water, and use formalin to disinfect the pool water to a concentration of 10ppm. After 3 days of toxicity disappeared, the rotifer species were introduced into the pool and the soybean milk was spilled once a day for 3 consecutive days. At this time, the rotifers proliferated in large numbers and the fish fry could be released. Taichi: Developed a full-length 2cm fish species of 10cm size. Before laying the seedlings, the pool is injected with about 50cm of water, and the quicklime is used to disinfect the pond to reach a concentration of 20ppm. At the same time, 500kg of manure is used to cultivate the feed organisms. After 7-8 days, the toxicity disappears and the food organisms are also allowed to reproduce.
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