Cultivation Techniques of Tomatoes in Solar Greenhouse

Tomato is one of the major vegetable species in the solar greenhouse. It is widely grown due to its high yield, good price, wide marketability, and high profitability. Adopting key technologies such as the use of limited-growth-type high-yield varieties, early shading and seedling raising, organic fertilizer addition, continuous picking of the heart for pruning, strengthening of fertilizer and water management, and comprehensive prevention and control of diseases and insect pests, can effectively extend the growth period of tomato and realize the cultivation of large-scale crops throughout the year. The average per mu is over 10,000 kilograms, and the maximum per mu is 17,000 kilograms. The specific measures are as follows:

First, the cultivation period and species selection Sunlight greenhouse cultivation throughout the year, in late July sowing seedlings, planting in mid-September, the product began to be listed in November, the following year in mid-July. Due to the long growth period and the four seasons of summer, autumn, spring and winter, it is necessary to plant an indefinite growth variety with high yield, strong resistance and adaptability to sunlight greenhouse cultivation.

Second, shading rain, nurturing strong seedlings
1. Seed treatment prior to seeding. Soak it in a 1.5% formalin solution for 30 minutes, remove it, dry it, and wrap it in a dry towel for 30 minutes. Then rinse with water. Re-use 55 °C hot water soaking, cooling after soaking 3 to 4 hours, remove and wash out after 25 ~ 28 °C under conditions of germination, 70 ~ 80% dew, you can sow.
2, nutritive soil preparation of nutritious soil to 40% of field fertilizer, 15% of decomposed chicken manure, 35% of compost pig manure, 10% of cooked cake fertilizer ratio, each side added 0.5 kilograms of superphosphate calcium nutrient soil. Sown the seedbed and tile 10 cm, 12 cm seedbed.
3, sowing seedbed seedlings soaked with water to be infiltrated, sprinkle a layer of nutritive soil (that is, per square meter bed with a mixture of five or more than 5 mixture of 8 to 10 grams) for sowing. Sprinkle the seed that spreads buds evenly on the seedbed and cover the soil 1 cm thick. To prevent sun exposure, small arch shelters cover the shade and are ventilated around. Before the emergence, the grass cover can be covered and 50% of the seedlings will be uncovered.
4. Seedling management seedlings grow to two true leaves when the seedlings are planted, and the spacing is 1212 cm. In order to prevent leggy, when 3 leaves and 1 heart, 100 to 150 mg/kg of paclobutrazol are used for foliar spray, and 5 leaves and 1 heart are sprayed for the second time. At the same time, potassium dihydrogen phosphate and urea can be sprayed on the leaves for 2 to 3 times. Moisture management, ground water for small water, keep the ground wet and dry. Seedling age 50d, plant height 20 cm or more, stem 0.5-0.7 cm thick, plants began to bud when planting.

Third, the application of base fertilizer, a reasonable close planting cultivation of tomatoes a year, a long growth time, the need for large amounts of fertilizer, only enough base fertilizer to get high yield. Each acre of greenhouse application of high-quality farmyard 20 or compost pig manure (or chicken manure) 4 sides, 50 kg of superphosphate, 40 kg of potassium sulfate, 3 kg of zinc sulfate, deep doubled, leveling. The ridges are widened and narrowed, with a ridge width of 80 cm, a ridge width of 50 cm, a ridge height of 15-20 cm, and an under-irrigation.
Before planting, apply 1 kilogram of dwarf pine per acre or greenhouse to prevent leggy. The density of colonization is controlled by the density of the south and the north, the distance between the plants is 30-35 cm, and about 3200 plants are planted in the mu.

Fourth, strengthen field management
1, increase the light intensity, extend the light time tomato high light requirements, we must try to meet the growth needs. Can choose to use the high transmittance of the non-drip film, grass cover early cover, cover the cloudy day to see the light, remove the debris after cleaning the film, wipe the film in time with a cloth and other measures. Shady management will be conducted after June of the following year. In particular, from 10:00 am to 3:00 pm, lay aside 1/3 shade of haystacks to prevent the light from becoming too strong to facilitate tomato growth and increase late yield.
2, the implementation of variable temperature management after planting to maintain a high temperature in order to ease the seedlings, the daytime 28 ~ 30 °C, night 20 ~ 22 °C is appropriate. After easing the seedlings to the flowering and fruit setting period, it should be maintained at 25-28°C during the daytime and 20-18°C in the afternoon, 16-12°C in the middle of the night, and 10-12°C in the middle of the night. The temperature difference should be increased from late November to December in order to increase the cold resistance of the plants from 25 to 32°C from 8 to 17 o'clock, from 17 to 22 o'clock 14 oC, and from 22 o'clock to 8 o'clock 10 to 8 oC the following day.
3, fertilizer management Water management of tomato should adhere to the principle of conducive to reproductive growth, inhibition of vegetative growth. After the planting, it will be irrigated with water. If the soil moisture is insufficient after the seedlings are revitalized, the growth of the seedlings will be weak. When the first fruit is enlarged to a diameter of 3 cm, the fruit is poured and promoted, and 15 kg of urea and 3 to 5 kg of potassium sulfate are applied in combination with watering. After that, water is poured for 15 to 20 days depending on the growth, and only in the membrane. Under the water, enter the size after 3 months. Fertilizer to grasp the fruit every time after the recovery of a fertilizer, with diammonium phosphate, urea, ammonium nitrate used alternately, each topdressing 15 to 20 kg. Or irrigated with water 1 to 2 times fully fermented human urine 400 kilograms, and with a suitable amount of potassium sulfate.
4, plant adjustment After several years of practice has proved that adopting a single dry picking head replacement method can effectively control the vegetative growth, promote reproductive growth, and achieve the desired results. The specific approach is to allow the trunk to grow indefinitely, pick up its hearts when it is between 3 and 4 spikes, and continue to grow on the side of the top of the head. When the results were 3 to 4 spikes, the same side-bearing stayed lateral branches continued to grow and all other side branches were removed. Can be changed head 3 to 4 times, the results of the whole year 14 to 16 spike.
In the process of growth, every time after harvesting a fruit, it is timely to fall and go to the old leaves, and always maintain a consistent growth.
In the process of pruning, fruiting and fruit thinning should be carried out, leaving only 3-4 fruit per panicle to maintain balanced growth and even fruiting, especially when the first flower per panicle is prominent for large flowers. The formation of malformed fruit should be promptly removed.
5, Baohuabao fruit with flowering tomatoes or 2,4----D treatment to prevent flowering and fruit drop. The concentration of 2,4-D is 20 mg/kg, and the concentration of tomato spirit is 20-50 mg/kg.

V. Strengthening pest control and prevention and control of pests and diseases We must always adhere to the principle of “prevention first, comprehensive prevention and control” and strengthen cultivation and management. In addition to disinfecting seeds and nutritious soil, organic fertilizers should be added to cultivate strong seedlings, and temperature and humidity should be strictly controlled to prevent leggy plants. In the initial stage of the disease, spraying protection is timely. For the early blight and late blight, the agents such as B-Al, ZE, and chlorothalonil are used. They are sprayed every 5 to 7 days and sprayed 2 to 3 times. Botrytis cinerea spray bed can be used for the gray mold. It is sprayed with sulfasalpin, mothraine during the growth period, and can also be added with 0.1% of schizoline when the hormone protects fruits. Initially sprayed with NS83 antiviral inducer, virus A, phytophthora, or soybean milk 1:20 to 30.

Used for impotence due to kidney deficiency, premature ejaculation due to spermatorrhea, flaccidity of waist and knee, cold and cold limbs. For the treatment of impotence and catharsis, it can be used with fairy grass, cornel meat, Cistanche deserticola and other products; for the treatment of lumbar and knee impotence, it can be used with Eucommia ulmoides, Morinda officinalis, Dogji and other products.

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