Cattle breeding and rearing management

First, choose the appropriate breeding methods and bred time 1. Breeding methods Chai chicken breeding using more than two, bred. One is half housekeeping, which refers to breeding broiler chickens using a combination of a chicken house and a playground. The shed houses a perch, with an area of ​​2 times the size of the shed and a sand bath in the corner of the stadium. In this way, the chickens are housed in chicken coops at night or on rainy days, and they are active at the sports field, eating and drinking during the day. Most of the culturing methods used are scale farmers and plain rural farmers. The other is grazing and rearing, which refers to spreading the chickens in a wider area and not suitable for farming. The hens are provided with chicken houses for night and rainy days. Perches should also be provided in the houses. Most of the breeding methods used here are farmers in mountainous areas, semi-mountainous areas, and plains with orchards and wastelands. 2. Breeding time The bred time is determined by the brooding time. The brooding time in Hebei Province and surrounding areas is mostly from March to May, and the bred time is mostly from April to October. Can not be too early, because at this time the outside temperature is low, after the chicks were bred, transferred to the bred broiler house, easy to get together in the evening extrusion bulk death. Can not be too late, when the egg market has missed the Mid-Autumn Festival, the National Day these two holidays, and too late in the fall of the egg production time is too short or not produce eggs, winter egg production rate is low, easily lead to low economic returns throughout the feeding cycle . The ideal ending time of the bred is 15 days to 20 days before the Mid-Autumn Festival, so that it will enter the peak of laying eggs during the National Day. Second, do a good job before the preparation of bred 1. Preparation of bred articles 1 Feed bred to use full-price compound feed or self-made feed. Cumulative feed consumption from 7 weeks to 20 weeks old for chickens ranges from 5500 g to 6,000 g each (using Hebei Chai as an example). The current market price of full-price compound feed is 0.69 yuan/500 g to 0.72 g/500 g (around Shijiazhuang). Self-made feed should pay attention to the selection of local and cheap raw materials. Feeding chickens should be mastered as dietary protein levels should decrease with increasing age. The graininess of the ingredients is taken into consideration when the ingredients are used, and the palatable nature of the powdered chicken is poor. In the following, Hebei Chaiji is used as an example to introduce feed formulas for two kinds of chaiji from 7 weeks old to 20 weeks old. for reference only. 2 Vaccines The vaccines used during the breeding period are mainly infectious bronchitis vaccine, chicken pox vaccine, Newcastle disease + inactivated bursal disease + egg drop syndrome inactivated vaccine, and bird flu inactivated vaccine. The cost of vaccine for each broiler is 0.18 yuan to 0.21 yuan. The vaccine used should be based on the immunization schedule established for the prevalence of the local disease. Here is an example of the introduction of an Hebei Hebei chicken as an immunization program for 7 weeks to 20 weeks of age, for reference only. 3 The commonly used disinfectants in the drug development period include peracetic acid, poison, killer, and potassium permanganate, etc. The prevention and treatment drugs include sulfoxacin, oxytetracycline, maduramycin, furazolidone, and baking soda. . Drug costs range from 0.25 yuan to 0.30 yuan per chicken. 4 Other items One feed processing machine (3,000 yuan/set to 3500 yuan/set), perch (1.8 yuan/meter to 2 yuan/meter), egg box (2.5 yuan to 2.8 yuan), material drum ( 8 yuan price (5 kg package)), bucket (6 yuan / month (5 kg), utilities costs 0.06 yuan to 0.08 yuan per chicken broiler. 2. Finishing preparation for rearing each batch of chicken into the rearing broiler house The breeding and sterilizing houses must be sorted and disinfected.The first is the preparation of the perch, whether it is feeding or grazing, the hens' habitat is indispensable, and the hen house adopts straight triangles and the hens rest on the slopes. On wooden or bamboo poles, the height is 2m to 2.5m, and the number of layers is 3 to 4 layers.The perch is mostly set against the wall and the number of perches is set by the wall. The number is based on a single crossbar length of 1 meter to accommodate 5 to 6 chickens. The calculations are then followed by egg box preparation (most breeders grow and lay eggs in the same house).The height of the nest box is 36 cm to 42 cm, the width is 36 cm, and the depth is 36 cm to 42 cm. The egg box structure is mostly a low-cost brick board structure located in a dark part of the house, preventing the litter and eggs from rolling during the laying period. Out of the box, a brick can be placed on the front lower part of the box, and no nest box should be placed near the floor of the chicken house. Finally, the debris in the breeding room should be cleaned, and the floor and wall should be disinfected with 2% fire alkali water (1) Week) Wash all utensils with 0.1% potassium permanganate and rinse with clean water. Overhaul of hydropower and ventilation equipment 3. Selection of broiler chickens During the breeding process, the entire population needs to be selected and eliminated. 2 times, combined with transfer or immunization, the selection criteria should be based on body weight, appearance, etc. The first choice is to be carried out after the brooding is completed and the group is transferred to a breeding hen house. Chickens, and then select the rooster. The second choice is to be carried out when the broiler house is transferred to a laying house or 125 days of immunization. First select all roosters to prevent early mating, and secondly to all chickens that are not suitable for laying hens. After elimination, the weight standard of Hebei hens laying hens is generally 1.25 kg to 1.5 kg.Four conditions during the growing period 1. The broilers that have just bred the temperature have not adapted to the sudden drop in temperature and should pay due attention to insulation. In the late spring, some insulation measures should be taken.General conditions should be maintained within the temperature of 15 °C ~ 30 °C, the temperature exceeds 30 °C, and ventilation can not be reduced, you can take the roof spray, add shade nets and other measures to reduce temperature. The relative humidity in the humidity breeding broiler house should be controlled between 40% and 70%, and it should not be exceeded under normal circumstances. In the case of continuous rainy days, the chicken is easy to bring muddy water into the house. At this time, compulsory ventilation and dehumidification measures should be taken. Light chickens are bred from March to May, usually without light, with natural lighting as the mainstay.If you find that growth is too fast, you can use the newspaper in the early morning to close the windows, and put the chickens in the late control for 1 hour to 2 hours. Ventilation Generally, the rearing doors and windows should be fully opened, and all the chickens should be open outside, and should be opened at night when the temperature is high, and should be closed in case of strong winds and rain. 5. Different rearing and controlling breeding density Feed intake is also different. If the male and female polyculture, it is prone to large differences in the size of individuals, early mating phenomenon in the late bred. General male and female mothers should be reared separately after hatching, but the hatchery chickens produced by small hatchery are not identified. At this time, they should be kept separately at the end of the brooding. Regardless of whether the male or female population should not be too large, it is advisable to control 200 to 250 eggs. The density of the chickens in the breeding plots should be controlled between 10 and 12 per square meter in the early stage of breeding and gradually reduced to 7 per square meter at the end of the breeding period. ~ 8 only. V. Rearing and management in the breeding period 1. Transitional work in the breeding period To do a good job Some small-scale chicken breeding and brooding are in the same house, there is no transition, as long as the density is gradually reduced. Some brooders and brooders are divided into separate groups so that they need to be transferred. Firstly, 2 days to 3 days before and after the group transfer, the dose of various vitamins in the feed doubled, and 5% electrolysis could be consumed at the same time. In addition, in order to reduce the number of stress, the transfer group can be arranged at the same time when 40 days of vaccination. When the chickens are transferred, the chickens must be handled gently. The chickens in the transport box should not be too much, so as to avoid death. After 2 days to 3 days of transfer, the broiler house should be fully illuminated at night. Because the chickens cannot adapt to the environment immediately after the colony is transferred, the night temperature should be low and it is easy to get together. Therefore, it should be guarded at night in the week after the group transfer. , found that the chicken and heap should be immediately evacuated. In addition, broiler feed should be replaced within one week after the group is transferred. Reload 1/7 every day. Refueling should be completed within one week. The two materials should be mixed evenly during refueling. Breeders without feed mixers should also mix artificially and should not save time. Do not stir. 2. Weighing of weighed broilers is an important part of checking the development of the flock, monitoring the level of feeding and management, and ensuring that hens start production at the right time. It is generally weighed once every 2 weeks, and randomly sampled by 5%. The sample should not be less than 50. 3. Feeding 1 half-fed feeding method 4 times a day, feeding 1 time every 4 hours from 6 o'clock in the morning, and feeding 1 time of green feed such as bran, cabbage leaf, etc. in the middle, and the amount is not more than 30% of the day's diet. . Particular attention should be paid to adding a net above the semi-tavern feeding ground to prevent birds from mixing each other. 2 Grazing Feeding methods Feed 2 times a day. At 6 a.m. and 6 p.m., grazing and raising should first be tuned to a good flock. The chickens can be recovered at any time by humans, and the grazing area is preferably set to a certain area. 3 whether to feed or grazing husbandry. Each feeding amount is 40 minutes to 60 minutes. 4 Semi-family feeding should keep sand in the sand bath, in order to train the digestive function of broiler chickens and improve feed digestibility. 4. Water 1 should be filled with water every time it is fed, and water should not be cut off at noon in summer. Drinking water should be used to drink clean well water. 2 When the weather is hot, 0.5% baking soda should be added to the water to relieve heat stress. 3 After each rain, Qingda or Snoroxacin should be added to drinking water to prevent digestive diseases. 4 Before the end of breeding, the broiler chickens should be treated with concentrated drinking water to remove the insects once and furazolidone for deworming. 5. Immunization In the rearing period of hatchery, immunizations are carried out in the evening, because it is convenient to catch chicken at this time. Inoculation should be done without leakage of a chicken, the vaccine is best to open within 1 hour on the same day, within 2 hours, the excess vaccine should be disposed of, and should not be used again next time. 6. Hygiene 1 Brush buckets and sinks every day. The barrels and troughs should be washed once a week. Clean the chicken houses and playgrounds in time. Chicken excrement should be introduced outside the breeding area and piled up. The dead chickens should be buried or incinerated. 2 Disinfect the chickens with sprays 2 to 3 times per week. Each disinfection should be done after cleaning the chicken house and sports ground on the day. 3 Disinfection of quicklime should be carried out in the shed of the hen, at least once a week. 4 work clothes and utensils should be promptly cleaned and disinfected. 5 As far as possible, the aquaculture area will reduce the access of foreigners.

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